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Hell is Other People

     Hell:  A netherworld where the dead continue to exist, where the damned suffer everlasting punishment, torment or destruction.  In Jean-Paul Sartre’s one act play, No Exit, the three characters discover that hell is a hotel room.  Garcin, the first to arrive – therefore the only occupant to experience solitude – later decided that “Hell is other people”.  If this statement is true, it is only because they have been given that power.  Other people are external forces and, as such, a distance or separation exists with them.  Whatever thoughts or opinions imparted from them are subject to interpretation.  In contrast, our own thoughts are internal, subject to self-deception and denial – both which collapse without reinforcement from external influence.  Hell becomes the search for self with no opportunity to experience self.

     In ‘Being for Others’, Sartre states “The Other looks at me and as such he holds the secret of my being, he knows what I am”.  The ‘Other’ has an impression of what ‘he’ sees, but how much influence can ‘he’ hold as an external force?  How can ‘he’, as an external force, hold a ‘secret’ that ‘I’ as an internal force, have not given him.  Sartre uses the word ‘what’ in reference to his ‘I’; this indicates that he is objectifying himself.  The objectification is not a reflection of what the other person sees of him, but rather what he perceives the other person sees.  This is indicative of how he sees himself in the others eyes.

     Sartre wishes to recognize the ‘freeze-frame’ that accompanies first impressions.  Sartre claims that Bad Faith is “…a certain art of forming contradictory concepts which unite in themselves both an idea and the negation of that idea … a facticity and a transcendence … two aspects of human reality that are and ought to be capable of a valid coordination.”  The idea of first impressions is an example these contradictory concepts and the possible breakdown in coordination.  First impressions are subject to circumstance, context or physical attributes such as gender or race, wherein the impression is a reflection of the other person’s biases or experience.  This first impression has little to do with the ‘I’ being observed, and more to do with the ‘other’ observing.  The breakdown in coordination occurs when the perceived opinion of another holds more weight than that which we have of ourselves.  To allow a strangers impression to influence one’s sense of self-image is a reflection on one’s own self-image.  If no interaction has occurred, then the impression perceived may or may not be accurate or well-informed.  We see ourselves in another’s eyes, but it is a reflection of what we present to them.

     In No Exit, Garcin initially wishes to continue in solitude, wishing the opportunity for self-reflection.  To the two women who have joined him in the suite he states “we’ll work out our salvation, looking into ourselves”.  He is not afforded his solitude.  He later reveals doubts regarding the actions that led to his demise.  He questions whether he was standing by his belief’s or whether he was a coward running from responsibility.  The only salvation that he can conceive is the affirmation of the former from another person.  Without that other person, or external influence, he would be trapped in this question alone, coward or martyr.  This is hell.  If one is in Hell for all time, then there is little to distract from the internal debate.  Every moment and every decision that one makes in one’s life would be measured to determine the validity of ones existence.

     Sartre states “…I choose myself from day to day, and I make it mine by making myself.” The day to day decisions we make shape our personality, our acceptance or denial of consequences shape our character. If Garcin saw himself as a coward, he masked it by hiding behind principles.  His evasion may be successful to onlookers, but never to himself.  A mask means nothing when no one is there to see it.  If a first impression becomes a lasting impression, it is because we do nothing to expand or inform that impression.  If we allow others to dictate who we are, then we are condemned to accept the role in which we have been cast.  If Hell is eternal, it is these decisions that we must reconcile or, at the very least, recognize.  Each of the characters in No Exit required affirmation of some sort from the other. They relinquished control of their self-image and consequently their self-worth.  They cannot find salvation from within because they do not recognize themselves from within; they only recognize how they are seen from another’s point of view.

     Hell as other people comes not in the condemnation of others, but rather in the affirmation of others.  As long as one can deceive an onlooker they can deceive themselves.  When the only company that remains is ourselves, it is ourselves that we must come to appreciate.  When we learn to appreciate ourselves we are no longer condemned to everlasting suffering, we are no longer in Hell.

 
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Posted by on May 23, 2013 in Confessions, philosophy, psychology

 

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Abstract Thought and Authenticity part two

For this post, I would like to focus on the concept of ‘abstract’ or ‘abstraction’.  I have a few reasons for this particular emphasis, the first of which is the necessarily vague dictionary definition.

From my handy-dandy:

abstract  adj

1: Considered apart from a particular instance.

2:  Expressing a quality apart from an object

3:  Having only intrinsic form with little or no pictorial representation.

abstract  n

1:  Summary, Epitome

2: An abstract thing or state.

abstract  vb

1:  Remove, Separate.

2:  To make an abstract of: Summarize

3:  To draw away the attention of

4:  Steal

abstraction  n

1:  The act of abstracting:  the state of being abstracted.

2:  An abstract idea

3:  An abstract work of art

I  have reread these definitions three times and still cannot attach any interest to them.  So, I am going to quote Wikipedia (en.wikipedia.org/wiki/abstraction)

“In philosophical terminology, abstraction is the thought process wherein ideas are distanced from objects.  Abstraction uses a strategy of simplification, wherein formerly concrete details are left ambiguous, vague, or undefined, thus effective communication about things in the abstract requires an intuitive or common experience between the communicator and the communication recipient.  This is true for al verbal/abstract communication.”

I would like to use the above references – or rather the sources of those references – to make my point.  Our society is being held hostage by miscommunication.  We lack the intuitive or common experience necessary for effective conversation.

Where do we find information?

My first instinct is always to reach for my dictionary.  In this habit, I am a product of my generation and those that came before me.  I have adjusted with advances in technology (for the most part), but I adjust from the foundation of ‘before’.  Before the internet was on your phone, before laptops were smaller than hardback books, before you could download and read a book without having to turn a page.  I even remember when home computers were a luxury rather than a necessity.  In truth, ‘before’ was not that long ago.

Sadly, my handy-dandy failed me.  I turned instead to the internet.  I typed a single word into a search engine, and almost immediately received thousands of options to choose from.  In utilizing an internet search engine, I began thinking on an abstract level.  I stripped away the specific characteristics of inquiry and approached the subject broadly.  Using this approach I can use deductive reasoning to narrow my field of interest to suit the aim I wish to achieve.

From:  www.scrassociates.com/glossary.html

Deductive:  Reasoning from the general to the specific; to chunk down.”

From:  www.dfamily.com/philosophy/teach/hswtl/glossary.html

Deductive:  Given a set of facts of assumptions which are supposed to be true, deductive reasoning is the mental process to extend these facts into new conclusions using logic; ‘Top Down’, or from the more general to the more specific.”

This method of reasoning was favored by such intellectual giants as  Descartes, Galileo, and Hobbes (www.psychnut.com/gloss.html) and yet, it is not the preferred method in our education system.  Rather, the opposite approach of Inductive Reasoning monopolizes the academic opportunities afforded young scholars.

From:  www.scrassociates.com/glossary.html

Inductive:  Drawing a general conclusion (abstract) from specific facts; chunking up.”

From:  www.philosophy.uncc.edu/mledrid/logic/logiglos.html

“Unlike deductive arguments, inductive ones promise only probability, not certainty.  Thus, if one argues that having watched several different newscasts in several different cities on many different nights, one may infer that newscasts emphasize, in Bob Inman’s phrase, ‘mayhem and misery’, then one is making an inductive argument (in this case, and inductive or empirical generalization).  Another kind of inductive argument is an argument from analogy.  Inductive arguments are judged by their reliability, where one expects only a high degree of probability, not one hundred percent reliability as with deduction.”

In an academic environment, students are ‘supplied’ with examples of a principle idea.  Oftentimes, the principle idea is omitted or addressed only after the examples have been presented.  In English class, students read short stories, poetry and essays from respected authors’ representative of their time and society.  They are familiar and well explored so much so that the ‘meaning’ and ‘interpretation’ of their works have lost subjectivity.  The analysis of their work has come from a long and distinguished line of ‘reliability’, as a result, differing interpretations are often classified as ‘wrong’, ‘misguided’ or ‘misunderstood’ and in need of ‘correction’.  The negation of individual responses cripples the students’ ability to form their own opinion.  They are denied the journey of exploration and enlightenment that comes with increased knowledge.

In the age of information, blind acceptance of majority opinion is dangerous.  As a society we have come to accept ‘probability’ as ‘certainty’.  We view ‘exceptions’ as ‘aberrations’ and ‘originality’ as ‘defiance’.  Rather than seek a personal understanding we rely on the explanations of others.  I am left to wonder where we would be in Descartes, Galileo and Hobbes had been satisfied by accepted ‘truth’.

 
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Posted by on October 7, 2011 in Coffee Shop Whore?, Confessions, philosophy

 

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Abstract Thought and Authenticity – part one

        “Falling under the influence of mass opinion, we become inauthentic because we neither seek nor create what is most meaningful to us as individuals.  When we live the way everyone else does, think the way everyone else thinks, and hold the same values everyone else holds, we do not use our freedom to create ourselves as unique individuals; instead we become slaves to a communal standard that more often than not, is mediocre and repressive.”                                                       Linda Patrik – Existentialist Literature

 

In the past I tried to tackle some abstract ideas, but I merely scratched the surface.  For every published post, there are three or four incomplete drafts.  I ask myself, and all who read this, is it necessary to complete an abstract thought?  In fact, is it not a sign of arrogance to claim complete understanding of an abstract idea? Indeed, such a claim is counterproductive; limiting the possibility for deeper revelation.  As I am on a quest for enlightenment, I shall endeavor to avoid the intellectual trap of arrogance. I hope that some of my half-thoughts compliment the half-thoughts of another.

 
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Posted by on September 24, 2011 in Confessions, philosophy

 

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Retrospection

            My decision to blog again has much to do with the tenth anniversary of 9/11.  I didn’t go into detail about how that day influenced my life in my early posts, truthfully, I skipped the experience entirely.  Everybody has their own version of that day, and each one carries a unique burden in that experience.  Those experiences should not be trivialized or diminished as so often happens when comparisons are made.  I have held my memory of that day close to my heart, protecting it from cynicism and recrimination.

            I avoided all media exposure on the anniversary.  Instead, I sat outside in the sunshine and read a romance novel, avoidance in a truly self-indulgent fashion.  When I had read the last page and the sun had dropped below the horizon I felt ashamed.  Without my distractions I began to feel that I had desecrated the sanctity of that day, that I had disrespected the memory of the lives that were lost.  Some days later I read a memorial blog that changed my perspective.

           From ‘Ephemera and Pseudo-Events’ by J.N. Nielsen:

                        “An anniversary is an arbitrary thing – the length of a year is utterly arbitrary – but it is natural to want to commemorate a loss, as it is natural to want to celebrate some joyous occasion. … To memorialize an event is to prevent its repetition, the render it singular, although we must relive the trauma in each memorialization.  Failure to memorialize an event means that it will be visited upon us time and again, though we will be spared the retraumatization of the continual consciousness of the event.”

             My experiences of that day have shaped every aspect of my life, but not in a negative way.  I honor the memory of that day by living each subsequent day with deep appreciation in my heart.  When I remember that day I don’t linger on images of destruction or fear, I am overcome by the humility and compassion I felt all around me.  I tremble not with grief, but with awe.  Remembering now feels like a renewal of hope, and hope and shame cannot coexist.

 
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Posted by on September 20, 2011 in Coffee Shop Whore?, Confessions, philosophy, psychology

 

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Letter – a work of fiction

Dear Julie,

     I couldn’t help but notice how nice your hair smelled today.  It was so beautiful in the sunshine, it took all of my self-control to not run my fingers through it.  I also couldn’t help but notice that you had lunch with that man again, I thought that my previous letters would have alerted you to how disastrous a relationship with this person might be, surely he could not love you as much as I do, but that is beside the point, I am sure you will realize that I am right on this point.  Have you told him about me?  Silly me, asking such questions, he would know better than to intrude on our relationship.

     I have been trying to decide what I would get you for your birthday this year.  I never see you wearing the earings that I bought you last year.  I have been trying to think of something more personal, something that you can cherish, something to remind you of my love.

     The first time we met my life changed.  You were so young and beautiful.  You were wearing that little pink sweater.  I remember how pretty your hair was in that ponytail,  I thought it a shame that you cut it all off.  I know you didn’t mean it to be hurtful to me, after all, I did say how much I liked it.  I am glad that you are growing it out again.  It’s much better looking when it is long.  It would have looked so beautiful streaming down your back at graduation.  But that was a long time ago, I barely knew you then, not like now.

     I hate to keep harping on about it, but that man you had lunch with… he is so much like that boy you were dating back then.  Richard something or other.  I tried to warn you about him.  You wouldn’t listen then either, I don’t know if you know, but I finally had to talk to him, I mean, really, even then you knew that we were destined to be together.  I know you had to have your fun, but he was getting a little too serious, he thought he could steal you from me.  I hope this one doesn’t make the same mistake.  Richard whatshisface just wouldn’t believe me when I told him you were mine.  Even after you moved away, I knew you were getting away from him, you knew that I would find you, no matter where you went.  The connection between us is too strong to ever be broken by miles.  Richard didn’t have that connection with you.

     Anyway, that’s all in the past.  We are the future.  I should go now, I will see you soon anyway, but I wanted to tell you that I love you and think of you always.

                                                                                                                                     Love and Devotion,

                                                                                                                                     Your Secret Admirer

 

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Computer Issues

Just when I thought I was getting things together… my ONLY working computer, STOPPED WORKING!!!!!!! As I have no library card – and therefore a miniscule amount of ‘guest’ access – I am once again delinquent on my postings. I have six minutes remaining on my borrowed computer. I want to cry.

 
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Posted by on June 25, 2010 in Confessions

 

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Alphabet Fiction

I mentioned something I have named ‘Alphabet Fiction’ a while back.  Well, now I am going to expand on it a little bit.

As you may know, I have a slight obsession with the dictionary.  My Handy-Dandy is a source of comfort, security and wisdom.  Oftentimes, it is also a source of inspiration.  Some of you may remember The Dictionary Distraction (https://missfionna.wordpress.com/2010/03/31/the-dictionary-distraction/) well, Alphabet Fiction follows a similar thought process.

Choose 5 – 10 words that begin with the same letter.  Even better if they are within the same dictionary page.

Use the definitions of these words to create a story line.

The title of the story MUST begin with the same letter as the words chosen. (the main title word… not ‘A’ or ‘The’, etc.)

The idea is based on flash fiction (500 words or less) but I bet that longer works could easily be developed using this technique.  I haven’t tried anything longer… but one day I will make that attempt.

I am interested to know if anyone gives it a try.  I am on outline phase with “D”.

Hope all is well,

Fionna


 
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Posted by on June 14, 2010 in Confessions

 

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